Cardiac pressure volume (PV) loops are considered to be the gold standard in cardiac function assessment and are used to determine myocardial contractility, compliance, muscle energetic and other important quantitative measures of function. PV Catheter technology has emerged as the most reliable method to generate real-time ventricular PV loops in the intact heart, particularly now as a result of recent advancements in the field through the use of "admittance" instead of the older "conductance" technology. Transonic® Scisense PV Catheters incorporate the latest admittance technology and high fidelity pressure sensors to meet the stringent demands of cardiovascular research.

Transonic flow probes can be placed on coronary arteries for myocardial infarct studies or on the aorta for cardiac output measurements. Flow measurements may be taken acutely or flow probes can be implanted for chronic studies.

EndoGear® telemetry combines pressure, ECG and flow/velocity in a single implantable unit. This allows for a comprehensive study of the heart in conscious, untethered animals.

For Isolated Heart studies see Isolated Heart and Organ Function.

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